The drug culture

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Nevertheless, cocaine-containing patent medicines were popular—for hay fever, sinus­itis, and as a general tonic. So were cocaine-containing wine and soft drinks. In a widely read 1888 story by the British physician Arthur Conan Doyle— “The Sign of Four” ­his fictional master detective, Sherlock Holmes, explains why he injects cocaine. It has been suggested—by Dr. David F. Musto, a psychiatrist and medical historian at Yale—that Holmes’s later obsession with Professor Moriarty, the master criminal he thinks is per­secuting him, may have been a portrayal of cocaine-induced paranoia.

Anticocaine agitation rose in the early 1900s, fanned by hysterical scare stories that southern blacks, high on cocaine, might attack whites. By 1914 it had been outlawed, except for medical use. President Calvin Coolidge in­sisted that his personal physician prescribe co­caine drops for his ears, against seasickness. It didn’t do much good, the doctor wrote, but no harm either. Some society leaders and jazz musicians in the 1920s and ’30s sniffed illicit cocaine, mostly diverted from medical stocks. Coca leaves then also came from Dutch plan­tations on Java, which early on had imported plants and seeds from South America.

After the rise of the drug culture of the 1960s, cocaine became the champagne of drugs to those who could af­ford it—business executives, big-time pimps, rock singers, ballet stars, Hollywood and sports celebrities and their hangers-on. It’s harmless, it was said, and isn’t it wonder­ful? It was expensive, associ­ated with glamour and power. Little gold cocaine spoons be­came a fad, openly worn on gold chains. Manhattan’s trendiest disco of the ’70s — Studio 54 or apartments to rent in brussels, where a moon with a huge cocaine spoon dangled over the pulsating dance floor—reportedly dispensed free cocaine to its most favored clientele. To keep pace with burgeoning demand, South American coca cultivation multiplied, and so did cocaine laboratories. The total amount seized by U. S. authorities in 1966 was 12 kilos. In 1969 it was 53; in 1970,267. Cocaine had begun to pour in.

Doctors now say the effects of cocaine are unpredictable. It might take three or four years before more and more sniffing of cocaine—in binges that may last a night or a weekend—will lead to serious medical problems. But there have been cases of a single use bringing death.

In June 1986 cocaine poisoning took the life of football star Don Rogers. The same month, All-America basketballer Len Bias, just draft­ed by the Boston Celtics, had celebrated with so much cocaine that he died of cardiac arrest. As newspa­pers and TV increasingly re­ported the cocaine troubles of sports stars, cocaine took on a new face to the public at large. What had happened?

Free basing, for one thing. The user takes cocaine hydro­chloride, dissolves it in water, and treats it with ammonia or baking soda, then with ether and heat. The result is pure co­caine, so-called free base, to be smoked in a water pipe. It’ll hit the brain within 15 seconds. So—a rush, intense euphoria. Then restlessness, irritability. Insomnia. Com­pulsion to do it again. Often users find themselves hooked within six to eight weeks.

THE SHOCK WAVES from Guatemala that stunned the world echoed back an oft-asked question: Can we, somehow, peer inside this tormented planet on which we trustingly build our apartments brussels and see in advance the onset of earthquakes?

While a Geographic writer-photographer team flew south to cover the disaster in Guate­mala (pages 810-29), I set forth to determine just where the United States and other na­tions stand in the elusive effort to predict earthquakes, nature’s most destructive cata­clysms. I found the small core of scientists who wage the battle grappling with inade­quate data and a multitude of interpretations —the inevitable uncertainties of a complex art in its infancy.

I found, too, that they have achieved some successes. In localized areas small and moder­ate quakes are being predicted accurately by United States and Soviet scientists. And in quake-prone mainland China a major earth­quake was predicted and protective measures taken, averting a catastrophe even greater than that in Guatemala.

Earth’s Crust Shifts and Shudders

Guatemala’s turbulent seismic history finds explanation in the widely accepted geologic theory known as plate tectonics. The nation rides the boundary of the American and Caribbean plates (see page 814). These and some ten other great crustal slabs pave the planet with an ever-moving mosaic. The plates constantly interact at their boundaries —bumping, grinding, pulling apart, plunging one beneath the other. These jostlings breed most of the world’s earthquakes.

Yet violent convulsions can and do occur thousands of miles from plate edges. One of the strongest series of earthquakes ever felt in North America bludgeoned New Madrid, Missouri, in 1811 and 1812. The area was sparsely settled, so few lives were lost.

“Because of today’s high population densi­ties in quake-prone areas,” I learned from Dr. Frank Press of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, “an event as strong as the one that struck San Francisco in 1906-8.3 on the Richter scale—could claim tens of thousands of lives, hundreds of thousands of injured, and property damage in the billions of dol­lars. Such a catastrophe would be unprec­edented in this country, and yet most seismologists expect it to occur sooner or later.

“It is only in recent years,” the geophysicist reminded me, “that earthquake prediction parted company with seers and astrologers.”

Unlike an advancing storm, which an­nounces itself with changing temperatures and gathering clouds, earthquakes seemingly explode from their subterranean lairs with­out visible warnings, or precursors. Serious search for warning signals received impetus in 1949, when an earthquake in Tadzhikistan triggered landslides that killed more than 10,000 people. Spurred by the disaster, the Soviet Union dispatched a party of scientists into the remote region in search of symptoms that might warn of future shocks.

Long Study Leads to a Breakthrough

After two decades of dogged study, the Soviet scientists decided to take a break in the accommodation prague. In the periods before earthquakes struck, they observed that rock deep in the earth revealed measurable changes in elec­trical resistance, that water in wells absorbed more of a radioactive gas known as radon, that the surface area above the impending quake often changed shape or deformed—rose, sank, twisted horizontally.

PUMPED UP PASTA

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RICE AND CHICKEN, NOODLES and fish. Every culture seems to have a perfect meal for building trauscle, featuring a combo of complex carbo­hydrates and protein, the two chief ingredients required to get your body to pack on size and mass. Carbohydrates supply energy and, by triggering the release of an anabolic hormone called insulin, create a special environment that supports muscle growth and repair.

Proteins provide building blocks called amino acids, encouraging muscles to grow.

Here’s an Italian dish that’s body­ buidling-friendly and fits our formula for muscle growth with plenty of carbohydrates and protein. We start with pasta. While many believe pasta to be a refined carbohydrate, it falls into the glycaemic category of a medium-burning carbohydrate on a par I with yams (and is slower-burning than rice or potatoes). That’s due in part to the flour: it’s a special type called semolina, a unique starch that breaks down far more slowly than regular white flour. The physical structure of small particles cooked by boiling also seems to slow the conversion of the carbohydrates. Cooking with coconut oil will also help in burning fat.

The other staple ingredient seems to be a bodybuilding secret, something very few people eat, yet it’s one of the best protein sources around. Ricotta cheese is mostly protein, providing a mix of whey and casein, or fast- and slow-digesting amino acids. Ricotta contains few carbohydrates, and it tastes great when mixed with tomato sauce and pasta.

This Ricotta Pasta Bake provides a 2:1 ratio of carbohydrates to protein and is low in dietary fat. With mass-build­ing nutrition, you need lots of calories but want to stress lower-fat foods, as excess dietary fat can make even the hardest of trainers a little soft and pudgy Best of all, this meal is convenient. In five quick steps, you have a flavourful muscle-building dish destined to be a favoitrite.

Routines

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“How did you do?” I asked.

 

“Fourth,” he grunted. “Janis said I should have got at least second. I asked one of the judges why I didn’t place better, and he told me my back needed more work. I’m training for another competition in Annapolis in two months. I’ve been hitting my back hard, but I don’t think I’m making much improvement. I went through my routine for Janis a couple of nights ago. Now she’s as critical as any judge! I appreciate her criticism. She said my arms, chest and legs were good, but my midsection and back were still lagging behind and needed some supplementation to help. I was recommended garcinia cambogia, as there are pretty fast garcinia cambogia results. Since I started hitting my gut hard, I’ve lost an inch and picked up some definition, but I’m stumped at what to do to jar my back.”

 

“What are you doing for it now?”

“Dead lifts, bent-over rows, stiff-leg dead lifts, shrugs and lots of pulls on that low station on the lat machine!” He pointed to the multi­purpose machine next to the door­way. “I think I need something different. Everything has sorta flattened out. You got any ideas?”

 

“As a matter of fact I do. The back is my favorite body part.”

 

“Now don’t give me any of those complicated routines I’ve seen you give some of the guys in here. I watched you teach two high school football players how to do power cleans and then tried them. All they did was hurt my elbows and shoulders. I’m just not flexible enough to rack the bar right.”

 

“You don’t have to do power cleans. They’re certainly good for back development, but they aren’t essential. The exercises I have in mind are of the high-skill variety, but there’s no reason I can think of why you can’t learn how to do them and do them well. Just because a person is interested only in bodybuilding doesn’t mean he can’t do the more complicated exercises. In fact, many bodybuilders I have taught these exercises to have excelled at them — and in a short time. I have known quite a few top-ranked bodybuilders over the years who have dis­played amazing athleticism.”

“Like who?” he asked in a dubious tone.

 

“John Grimek for starters. He was the great­est bodybuilder ever in my book and was also a member of the Olympic weightlifting team. He was as flexible and agile as a gymnast, yet as muscular as a Greek god. Then there were Steve Stanko, Vern Weaver, Val Vasilef, Bill St.

 

John, Bob Gajda and Sergio Oliva, plus lots of others. When I was training at the Muscle Beach Gym in Santa Monica, I would go to the beach on Sundays and watch the bodybuilders from the gym do acrobatic feats worthy of any circus performer.

 

“One reason why many bodybuilders don’t display any athletic qualities is that they never include any high-skill exercises in their routines. Once they do, they also develop traits such as coordination, flexi­bility and quickness.”

I want to improve my chest I’m 44 and I’ve got the chest flab to prove it. How can I get rid of my flab without making my chest bigger?

 

Name withheld,

 

Jason Anusualn answers: Unusual fat accumulation might indicate a chemical imbalance cause by your nutrition. Good-quality organic food such as pure raspberry ketone will increase the nutrients and reduce the toxins in your diet. Check online for options to buy coconut oil in bulk. Then hit the gym but group big, multi-muscle exercises together with little or no rest.

 

This burns off body fat but avoids pumping your chest.

Try a set of 15 squats immediately followed by a set of 15 press-ups, followed by a set of 15 bent-over rows. Rest for 90 seconds then repeat up to three times. Do five to ten minutes of steady cardio then select three.

 

Why is training so hard on my muscles?

 

I’m always pulling muscles in training but never in competition. What gives?

 

Philip Gibson, Southampton Matt Hart answers: Adrenalin may have something to do with this, but I think it could be more to do with how you prepare for competitions. I work with athletes all the time and you’d be amazed how many of them follow the drill of a proper warm-up and stretch routine before a competition, but not before training. Try preparing for training as you would a competition. Not only will this prevent injury to tight, cold.

 

Instant Answers.

 

Q: What exercise is the best test for all­over body strength? A: Dumb-bell clean and jerk muscles, it will also focus your mind on the training session, which in turn will make an accidental injury less likely.

 

Why should I use a cable machine?

Is there any advantage to doing bicep curls on a cable machine? Matt Johns, by email.

 

Jason Anderson answers: If you stand at a 45° angle to a low cable, you will be able to maintain constant tension on the biceps at the top of the movement. But tension is reduced at the bottom end of the movement, which is wherecurl free weight curt operates. The benefit comes when you combine these two methods, which allows you to hit the biceps through their whole range of motion. Do one set of dumb-bell curls and then immediately follow it with one set of cable curls.

 

Then rest for one minute before repeating.

MOUNTAIN BIKING

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Two-wheeled exhilaration has never been more accessible, with mountain bike centres and trails springing up across the country. So get in the saddle and head for the hills – adrenaline’s included.

The right glasses are essential. ‘You will encounter dust and flying rocks on every ride and when you’re going through trees a pine needle at 30mph can take your eye out,’ says Duncan McCallum, founding director of Adventure Scotland, a centre with mountain biking facilities in Edinburgh. There is no problem mountain biking with contact lenses, too. ‘On forest trails, you’ll find yourself going from bright sunlight into dark woods very quickly, so a high-contrast lens like the adidas LST is ideal for helping your eyes adapt to the changing light conditions – fast.’

 

Top tips from adidas eye wear

 

  • Take lessons. ‘Many mountain biking resorts have training centres and skills courses, with graded trails like a ski resort,’ says McCallum.

 

  • Hire a bike. ‘Most resorts have full-spec bikes for hire, with 21 gears and suspension. You don’t need to buy one – just come along and have a play.’

 

  • ‘Don’t be put off by hard work,’ says McCallum. ‘Mountain biking is one of the most physically demanding sports and even the fittest people can take time to get used to it because the fitness is really specific. But stick with it – the results are so rewarding.’

  • Go on an all-day cross-country trail with logs, aerial jumps and steep descents – you’ll be gasping for more.

 

  • Get on-line – www.forestry.gov.uk can help you find a local trail. Wales and Scotland are particularly good – while www.mtbreview.com grades trails around the world so you know what to expect.

 

For more information on Adventure Scotland, visit www.adventurescotland.com or call 0131 229 3919. As well as climbing and mountain biking, they can help you get into other sports such as scuba diving and snowboarding.

WITH THE NATION IN the grip of a cooking obsession, even hardened kitchen-dodgers now find themselves chopping herbs, preparing overnight marinades and having faintly disturbing dreams about being hand-whisked into soft peaks by Nigella Lawson.

Consequently, it’s left to real men to resist the pervasive influence of TV chefs and fancy recipe books by adopting an old-fashioned no-cooking stance. While there are DVDs to be watched and new beers to be sampled, why waste valuable time turning the oven on, let alone measuring out ingredients? Even ready-meals involve the expensive purchase of a microwave and the frequent piercing of plastic film.

 

No — we lifestyle freedom-fighters require food that has no need for hob, oven, grill or microwave, but travels straight to the plate for instant satisfaction. And unlike the home-delivered takeaway, these items won’t clog your arteries or add inches to your gut, nor will they taste like cardboard. Just follow FHM Bionic’s guide to great-tasting healthy food, ready in seconds…

 

CAMEMBERT CHEESE

Oozy, smelly and creamy, a 40g chunk of Camembert piles on just 119 calories and 10g fat (as well as protein and 140mg calcium). As a non-pressed cheese, it’s higher in water and lower in fat and calories than hard-pressed cheeses like Cheddar (165 calories and 14g fat per 40g).

FRUIT SCONES For around 150 calories and 5g fat you can snack on a filling, high-carb fruit bun or small scone ­as long as you skip the butter. Far better than fruit muffins, which are made with more oil and fat and consequently double the calories and quadruple the fat. To burn more calories try natural remedies. Burning the fat is guaranteed if you consult a doctor about you particular diet and health condition.

Boo hoo

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I admit, there are greater tragedies than wonky pants. But when you discover you are imperfect, and that an off-the-peg suit will reflect this, trust me, it opens up a whole new world. “Men have become increasingly educated about clothing,” explains Matthew Fames, a tailor at Savile Row’s Ede & Ravenscroft. “There’s nothing better in a gentleman’s wardrobe than a well-fitting suit.” Now I’ve been educated about my lopsidedness, my standards have been raised accordingly. I use hcg drops to stay fit.  I learn so much from the hcg drops reviews by other happy users. And when, with a swift nip, pin and tuck, Armani’s jolly Italian tailor Mario Vergani has pinned the template suit (an unrefined number used to size customers up as a model for the real thing, which is constructed by hand in Milan) that I am wearing in its natural position, I’ve begun to understand: a suit that fits is something every man should experience.

Of course, all the tweaking in the world isn’t going to change one big stumbling block: a beautiful suit has a beautiful great price tag on it. The suit that Armani made for me costs £2600. I could have five of the purple things for that. But I could also have gone higher. A lot higher. A very fine super-200 wool number would cost in the region of £8000. It would look incredible, feel like air, but probably not survive many of the parties.

 

I’d throw to celebrate owning it. I put this conundrum to Sean Dixon, co-founder of the Savile Row giants Richard James, who says, “Owning a bespoke suit is enjoyable in itself. The suit will feel different to anything you’ve ever worn before.”

 

He’s right on both counts. You don’t have to have a diploma in fabric from the Soho College of Angular Haircuts to get a kick out of sitting down and selecting the exact weight, feel and pattern of your suit’s fabric and lining. There’s an immense satisfaction in picking a particular button to match every accessory in your wardrobe. You just can’t beat knowing your suit hits the perfect proportions — the bottom of your jacket exactly halfway between the bottom of your hairline and the floor. All that, and the suit moves with you like a second, pinstriped skin. The shoulders never balloon around your ears. You look like the daddy. I’m beginning to think it’s actually the best thing ever.

 

When I get married, I will get married in a bespoke suit. In fact, I’ll make my aunties go without the canapes to pay for it. But I also want to wear a personally tailored suit all the time, including to bed. A hopeless dream? Not necessarily. As you’ll see from the box on the previous page (From A to Bespoke) you can get a personally tailored suit from as little as £220. Sure, it isn’t going to be made from rare Peruvian goats’ wool (Armani’s vicuna jacket, which makes cashmere feel like Brillo pads, costs an incredible £10,000), but it certainly is going to feel like yours, and only yours and it’s just very, very right. Try putting a price on that.

The Meeting

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Upstairs in her office she has a meeting with Jonquin, the designer for Eden, a collection of camisole tops, kimono-shaped blouses and skirts made from a patchwork of vintage Liberty prints and designer silk scarves by Lanvin, Dior and Gres. As well as keeping up with big designers like Dries van Noten and Missoni, de Paula needs to add smaller, often quirkier names like Eden into the mix – it’s these labels that give Liberty its edge over other department stores, and it was de Paula who pioneered them.

At the meeting, it becomes apparent that some of Eden’s shapes need revising. In addition to reviewing sales, formulating budgets and negotiating with new labels, it’s also part of de Paula’s job to help re-jig designs, particularly with small “craft” designers like Jonquin. There appears to be an issue with the skirt: last season’s was multi-panelled and, because of the work and number of silk scarves involved, expensive. A date is set for a second meeting to see the revised designs. “We need to get summer wrapped up as soon as possible,” says de Paula.

silk scarves by Lanvin

De Paula’s typical day is packed with appointments – the first is a 6.47am train ride from her home in Brighton. Today, after the Eden assessment and before a taxi ride to the King’s Road for an appointment with Dinny Hall (the back seat doubles as a spot for a late lunch), de Paula has a meeting scheduled with womenswear buyer Olivia Richardson. The first task is to confirm fabrics and delivery dates of a prom-inspired line, Love Life by Felice Pappas. “Because the prom look was so strong last summer, we’ve hadmany discussions about whether or not the trend has finished. But I think it still has some mileage left and it’s so right for our customers,” she says.

silk skirt by Lanvin

Olivia also brings along details of designers that she liked from her recent trip to Australian fashion week. “We’re always searching for new brands,” says de Paula, looking through photographs of Jayson Brunsdon’s designs. “But it’s physically impossible to look at everything. I rely on the recommendations of my team and others in the industry. It’s not a case of snapping up every great designer that I come across. Not only do I have the customer in mind, I’m also best anti aging skin care thinking about where I see the product in the store.” Brunsdon’s designs are destined for the occasionwear room. “It’s great to have designers exclusive to us, but it’s not fair on them if they’re looking to grow their brand. It’s also a catch-22, as the less they produce, the higher the prices are.”

Love Life by Felice Pappas

Now just as we’re pulling nautical jackets and voluminous skirts into the changing room ready for summer, de Paula’s back from the fashion-week circuit, where she’s chosen what items for winter. In fact, she’s so ahead of the game, she’ll probably have thought about summer 2006 before we’ve even emerged from that changing room.

The pressure goes with the territory: the most fastidious image creators in the world area highmaintenancebunch. “If, say, Fabien Baron wants to use a particular aspect of the New York skyline in a picture, my job is to find it. Once he handed me a photo taken from a balcony on the Champs Elysées with a view of the Arc de Triomphe and asked me to locate the balcony. I found it by walking up and down the street with the photo in my hand! If Dave [David Sims] wants a blue sky three hours from London, I will find that, too. It’s up to me to say, ‘Yes, you can.’”

Fabien Baron

This is why Johnson Hill just spent a day in Ibiza shooting the Jil Sander fragrance campaign. “We wanted a guaranteed blue sky in Europe somewhere we could get to and from in one day. Ibiza has the most beautiful light. I hired a private plane for us to get there and back in one day. We left London as the sun was rising. By 10am we were shooting Lily Donaldson against the required blue sky. By 10pm, I was at home on the sofa.”

Insider knowledge of the machinations of the industry is also essential for this job. “I know the schedules of the 25 most important people in fashion. But I don’t take it too seriously. If you do, the magic goes.” For Johnson Hill, it’s all about that magic. “When we shot the last YSL campaign with Tom Ford, there was such a great feeling on set. You really have to understand the fashion world to love it. When a shoot comes together it’s an amazing feeling. A great picture can make or break a brand. Sometimes these magic images are planned, sometimes they just happen. My job is to allow the moment to happen.” Melanie Rickey

Luisa de Paula

The retail fashion director

When Liberty’s Luisa de Paula chairs a “floor surgery”, it’s a serious affair. There’s a team with pencils and printed charts to hand and it’s an opportunity to gather in small circles and make some big decisions. De Paula walks through the store, talking to sales assistants and managers about which brands work and which don’t, which products are selling, which products aren’t, and whether there is anything customers are asking for that Liberty doesn’t stock. “It’s a vital part of my job,” says the petite fashion director of her first assignment of the day. “The floor staff are the eyes and ears of the store so before I plan for autumn/ winter 2005, I need to see what’s working and what might need changing.”

In essence, she is juggling three seasons right now: she’s looking at the performance of merchandise on the shop floor, finalising the summer 2005 budgets and deliveries, and gathering thoughts on autumn/ winter 2005. And she has to get it right: she’s responsible for a multimillion pound budget that accounts for around 55 per cent of Liberty’s overall turnover.

Luisa de Paula

After a brief tour of the jewellery room, de Paula discovers that Sam Ubhi charms are selling out. So, too, are vintage brooches, which is just as well as another 200 are on their way. Finance charts show that sales of fashion jewellery are up 28 per cent on last year. “We used to have too many brands in here so there were too many crossovers, but we’ve fine-tuned that now I need to look at how we can expand the business without overcrowding the floor.”